PBL: Managing the Mushy Middle

Yesterday I had the privilege of spending the day with 30 extraordinary educators. It was our second ever Project Learning Swap Meet and it truly was wonderful. The focus for this Swap Meet was on the ‘how’ of project-learning whereas the first Swap Meet had been focused on the ‘what’ and ‘why’. If you’re not sure what I’m talking about when I say Swap Meet, you can read about it here.

The day started in the expected disorganised style that is characteristic of me and Lee … we were creating ice-breaker activities as we drove into the city and once we made it to the Powerhouse Museum we rushed to set up the space and harass the very generous Peter Mahoney into printing off some stuff for us. It was pretty chaotic by the time the Swappers started showing up, haha. I found myself out the front unintentionally and crapping on in a poor attempt to entertain those who were on time whilst we waited for those who were not. I did manage to think up a vampire metaphor for people’s PBL experience to match the stickers I had to give out: the newbies (no projects attempted yet) are ‘no fangs’, the amateurs (one or two projects attempted) are kittens with small fangs and the pros (those who do PBL full-time) are fully-fledged vampires who ‘bite’. It made me laugh, anyway.

Well as soon as most people had arrived, we started discussing what everyone felt they still ‘need to know’ about project-learning. Everyone pretty much agreed that what was troubling them/challenging them was the process of running a project. Mike made the insightful point that many know what happens at the beginning (the project launch and the DQ) and the end (the celebration of learning) but many are still fuzzy about what happens in the middle. I nicknamed this the ‘mushy middle’ and it became a repeated metaphor that we returned to throughout the day. It’s great that the talk naturally turned to this, because really that was the focus for the day anyway- managing the process of PBL. The loose driving question that we came up with for the day (which we didn’t return to enough unfortunately), was ‘How can we make the PBL process killer for our kids?’ (Can you tell that Lee came up with that? His is a much cooler adaptation to my original question, ‘How can I best manage the PBL process to support my students’ learning?’)

Before the Swap Meet, I put together a small booklet of my ‘go to’ resources for managing the mushy middle of project-learning. As I said to Malyn today, even though these are resources that I have created and/or used for many projects, different resources work better with different students. It’s always about context – just try something with your students and if it doesn’t work, evaluate why and then try again or try something different. I wanted to share those resources with those of you who might similarly be struggling with the question, ‘How does PBL work day-to-day in the classroom?’. I sense that this concern is mostly to do with managing team-work (which is really bloody hard and I certainly don’t have the answer … just ask my students!) and the nature of assessment. There really isn’t one way to approach either of these issues – as I said above, it’s very much about trial and error, taking risks and being confident to discuss the problems with your students. I know this is very hard to do, but it is necessary to embrace the fact that PBL is essentially a messy process where the best thing a teacher can do is step out of the way and let kids work things out for themselves. Letting go can be very stressful for teachers, but nothing can replace the sense of liberation you will experience once you do, I promise.

NOTE: These resources are not in any particular order … just in case you read into how I upload them, lol.

Goals/Medals/Missions: I’ve written heaps about this in the past. This is a formative assessment strategy developed by Geoff Petty in response to the research of John Hattie and Black and Wiliam. You can google their names and find out cool stuff about assessment if you so choose. I use GMM in three different ways to help support my students’ learning. Firstly, as a daily learning reflection method. Students keep a simple journal in the back of their workbooks where they record their personal goals, medals and missions for that lesson. I don’t use this with all classes, all of the time. Often I forget. I am human. Secondly, I create checklists for the product being produced (poem, performance, speech, essay, story… whatever) with students identifying what must be included. This checklist becomes their self and peer assessment tool and students identify M&Ms at the bottom of the document for the work they assessed. You can download an example here: personal-essay-checklist. Thirdly, at the end of a project, I collect students’ individual project folders and I give them M&Ms for the skills and content I was targeting for that project – e.g. collaboration, presentation, creative thinking, knowing poetic devices, essay structure, narrative techniques etc. Always give more medals than missions – super important tip!!

Team contracts: When I first started doing PBL, I thought these were completely naff. I didn’t use them for years. Now, I think they’re really important documents for my students. Signing that piece of paper means you’ve committed to your team. It means that if you fail to do your bit, your team can justifiably by annoyed and there can and will be consequences. You can get a good team contract from the bie.org freebies section. It’s always best if students create their own contract, of course.

Project Management Log: This is another BIE document that I ignored for years in my attempt to avoid paper in my classroom. Just recently I’ve discovered the power of a management log whilst working with my Year 9 students. It takes time to fill this document in, but it is really worth the time. Like the team contract, it allocates responsibilites to each team member, but it also helps students to become more independent each lesson as they have direction in their learning. It’s as much about time management as it is about role/responsibility allocation. You can get a copy of the project management log document from the bie.org freebies section.

Learning spaces and metalanguage: The best project classroom is going to be a flexible space. I know we don’t all have those rooms with cool bright furniture on wheels, but we all do have access to open spaces like ovals and quadrangles. Make the most of them and get your kids outside when it’s appropriate. A great tip I stole from the peeps at New Tech High is using staircases as presentation spaces – the audience sits on the stairs and the speaker/performer stands at the bottom. This is the type of creative use of existing space necessary for a successful project-learning class. As you know, I think metalanguage is powerful and have adopted the names of spaces used at NBCS, inspired by an essay by Thornburg. You can read about my thoughts on metaphors for learning spaces here.

Project packets: The term ‘packet’ for a bundle of worksheets it so American – we just don’t use it here in Australia. When I say ‘packet’, I mean ‘packet’ in the Aussie sense – a bunch of stuff in a container. For me it’s an envelope of documents. Of course it doesn’t have to be an envelope (I bought plastic document wallets for 50c each at Officeworks), it can also be a plastic tray or a plastic sleeve folder. It is one packet of information per team. It contains only the essential documents required for project success: project management log, team contract, project calendar, project outline and supporting documents to guide them through the inquire, create and present cycles of learning. These stay in the classroom in a central space that students can access each lesson. They don’t go home – if they did they’d never return!

Project walls: A project wall can be physical (an actual wall space in your classroom), or virtual – online somewhere like a weebly, glogster or blog. It is a space for key project elements to be shared. It’s similar but different to the project packet. It keeps students focused and organised but also showcases the learning that has occurred so far. Essentials for the project wall are: project outline, driving question, student-generated ‘need to know’, project calendar, key project vocabulary and the lounge roster (in-joke, lol!).

SOLO Taxonomy: This is just another strategy to help students self-assess and monitor their learning. I’m not a SOLO guru but I know there are heaps of them online, so go find and follow them. Our mate Tait Coles is the gun when it comes to incorporating SOLO into a project-learning-style classroom. I really like SOLO and my students have had great success with it. Their honest self-evaluation can be enlightening and terrifying for teachers.

Punk Learner rubric: This is a piece of genius created by the aforementioned Tait Coles. He created this rubric with his students and passionately encourages you to steal the idea of a punk learner rubric, but to create one with your students instead of just using the one him and his students created. It’s all about context and significance. My Year 11 students used this rubric to self-assess post half yearly examinations – as with SOLO, the results are enlightening and terrifying!

Team work rubric: Similar to Tait’s Punk Learner rubric, this is about students self and peer assessment to start a conversation and reflection about their contribution to team goals etc. I had a great time creating a team-member rubric with my Year 9 class after some students failed to be effective team-members in the previous project. You can download pre-made rubrics from bie.org freebies page which is a great place to start.

Blogging: I think getting your students to start blogging really allows you to follow their individual experience of each project. It’s such a cool way to get into their heads and can be extremely enlightening! My Year 11 students have successfully used the think/puzzle/explore blogging protocol this year. You can read about that protocol here.

Need to Know: This is essentially a list of questions that students decide that they need to have answered. You can use a KWL table for this or just get them to sit in teams and generate a list of five things the definitely need to know in order to be successful with the project. This is a kind of sneaky activity because often you (as the teacher) know what kinds of things they will identify – but that’s what differentiates the typical classroom experience from the PBL experience – it’s about students identifying what they need to know and how they will discover that. I love putting these questions up on the project wall and returning to them each week to monitor learning – students like being able to cross questions off the list and it helps them see that they are learning.

Project calendar: I think this really is a PBL staple. It’s so normal and expected in the ‘real world’ (love that phrase cos it makes me laugh, is a school an unreal world? lol!) that we plan our projects, that we look to the future and organise our time in advance because we want to be successful and know that we need to negotiate time, money, space, people etc in order to be successful. I love the BIE project calendar – you can’t beat it. Download it from the bie.org freebies page.

Rubrics for products: I wouldn’t say that these are essential. After years of doing this PBL caper, I’m kind of getting suspicious of rubrics. I find them too prescriptive and constrictive. But that’s me coming from a place of much experience with using them in the classroom. I personally think that students don’t like using them and they don’t use them well. A check-list is better. If you are going to use them, create them with your students and make sure they are written in student-friendly language. You can use Rubistar to find pre-made rubrics as a model for what you and your students can create. I used a rubric created with my students for assessing rap-battles earlier this year. You can see it here.

Formative assessment strategies: You need HEAPS of these, and really a number of them are in this list anyway. Be creative with your formative assessment – use a variety of online, face-to-face, recorded, team and individual formative assessment strategies to provide your students with feedback on their learning. I wrote a post once asking for people to share their favourite formative assessment strategies – maybe you’d like to add to it?


Project Based Learning and the Australian Curriculum ‘General Capabilities’ (Part 3)

This is the third part of my posts on the Australian Curriculum’s General Capabilities and Project Based Learning (PBL). The first part is here. The second part is here. What is PBL? Read about it here.

Well it’s taken me ages to get to this last post. School and life has been hectic. Isn’t it always? I intended for the three posts to be completed for SDD Term 1 and it is now the end of Week 2. Luckily these General Capabilities are so straight forward and everyone always covers them with their classes, right? Oh, wait … no. That’s NOT the truth. Whilst Ethical Understanding and Intercultural Understanding are essential capabilities for awesome humans, they can so easily be overlooked when teachers feel pressured to prioritise content.


According to the AC website, ‘Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others’. This is pretty important stuff, right? I mean, in high school we’re often working with young people who simply lack resilience or a deep appreciation for their own values and how these can impact those around them. Why? Because they are young people finding their place within the world. But maybe it’s because they don’t understand or can’t appreciate the relevance of what they are doing RIGHT NOW in their school lives. To teenagers, school can often seem like they’re in a holding pen waiting until they’re given the chance to be morally responsible. In order to support our students to develop ‘personal values and attributes such as honesty, resilience, empathy and respect for others’ (Melbourne Declaration on Education Goals for Young Australians) we need to create learning experiences that foster and nurture these values and attributes.

Project based learning is about problem finding and problem solving. Not the problems in the back of the book, or the imaginary problems identified in a novel, but the REAL problems of our world that need addressing. It is in the driving question of a project that we see the centrality of problems. These problems might be based in the class (How can we design a learning space that supports the needs of all learners?), school (Can we, as students, prevent bullying in our school?), local community, (How can we educate our community about the impact that individuals’ decisions have on others?), national (Can we create a short film that will change politician’s attitudes to climate change?) or global (How can poetry be used to inspire people to donate money to combat the global food crisis?). The best problems, of course, are those identified by students through their own personal experience or through their own in-depth inquiry. To help students with their problem-finding, you could use this sentence from the AC as stimulus for discussion and brainstorming: Complex issues require responses that take account of ethical considerations such as human rights and responsibilities, animal rights, environmental issues and global justice. It simply is NOT enough to have our students writing persuasive speeches or research articles or poems about these issues, handing them in to teacher for a grade and ticking a box. We MUST empower our young people to actually actively take part in making a contribution to their world – to truly contribute their ideas to solving complex problems.This means ensuring that their learning has a public audience.

Of course, we can’t expect on class doing PBL to solve the world’s problems – but many hands make light work. According to the AC, Technologies bring local and distant communities into classrooms, exposing students to knowledge and global concerns as never before. With the capacity to bring others into our classroom vis Skype, edmodo, social media etc, we have the capacity to work together towards incremental changes to our somewhat shitty world. Giving students a taste of what their own personal capacity is, to develop their understanding of themselves as ethical human beings, is really central to our jobs as teachers.

Here’s a video of me talking about the importance of fostering Ethical Understanding in the young people in our care:


One of the reasons I love the Internet is because it has made our world a little bit smaller. It’s made it easier for me to appreciate the shared nature of humanity and opened my eyes to the importance of connecting and collaborating with people all over the world. However, I do often ask myself whether that’s just me idealising the Internet. Chatting to my students and observing how they use the web, it seems to me that maybe it’s not actually being used in a way that bashes down contextual and cultural boundaries, bringing about a truly global community. I mean, don’t get me wrong, I know that my students are connecting with other young people from all around the world – especially those who are gamers. But is this reinforcing cultural divides as they seek out others with the same or similar cultural contexts to themselves? For the AC, intercultural understanding assists young people to become responsible local and global citizens, equipped through their education for living and working together in an interconnected world.

Creating learning experiences that provide students with the opportunity to connect and collaborate with students from backgrounds different from their own truly does nurture intercultural understanding. During PBL, students develop essential 21st century skills as they establish connections with other schools or with experts from outside of school. PBL provides the students with the the ability to relate to and communicate across cultures at local, regional and global levels. Currently my Year 8 class is connecting with a small rural school (North Star Public School) in northern NSW in their attempt to answer the driving question What can we learn from the life stories of others? This project requires them the engage with a text that explores the life story of an individual from a culture very different from their own – for my class they’re learning about the peoples indigenous to North America and learning about the impact of colonisation on these peoples. They are also connecting via twitter, edmodo and skype with the North Star students to share their own life stories and in doing so they are cultivating values and dispositions such as curiosity, care, empathy, reciprocity, respect and responsibility, open-mindedness and critical awareness, and supports new and positive intercultural behaviours. The project covers significant content for both classes as they are actively engaging in their wider world and discovering something new about others and themselves.

There are many more learning experiences such as the one I have outline above that my students have enjoyed over the years because of project based learning. Using this approach to learning truly opens our eyes, as teachers, to the potential connections our young people can make with others. It doesn’t have to be connections from outside of the school either. At my school, we have a number of students from Japan, Korea and China, who spend one to two years studying at our school. My colleague ran a wonderful project at the beginning of the year where his Year 12 students planned and ran the introduction activities for our new international students. This was a awesome opportunity for all of the students involved to learn about other cultures and it gave them the chance to identify culture and develop respect. My goal for this year is to have one of my classes to work on a project with a class with Aboriginal students. I recently discovered the 8 Aboriginal Ways of Learning and am very keen to design a project that incorporates all 8 ways because I believe they are the ways my students learn also. Working at a school on the Northern Beaches in Sydney isolates my students from the potential to truly develop their understanding of the cultures of the original inhabitants of this country. It’s time that I use my PBL skills and the technologies we have available to break down these cultural barriers and create awesome learning experiences for both classes. I just have to find the right school to connect with!

As I’ve said before, I’m a big fan of the AC’s General Capabilities. I think it is essential that we continue to value our young people as the future of our world and support them as best we can to develop or strengthen these important attributes of awesome humans. I truly do feel that an approach to learning such as project based learning that is experiential, authentic and engaging provides our learners with the BEST opportunity to hone these very important values and attributes.

This is why kids are cool …

Last weekend our 11 year old son, Keenan, asked if he could go to his mate’s house. They had been scripting a video together at lunchtime and they wanted to film it. We were fine with that (actually stoked would be a better word!), so on Sunday he spent four hours at his mate’s house.

He came home in the afternoon and begged to use my Mac. He wanted to edit his movie so he could upload it to YouTube. I was writing, so he had to use his dad’s Mac – but first he had to go beach fishing, with his dad of course. At 8pm on Sunday he sat down at the computer and started asking me questions. Good questions: How do I import the video from the SD card? How do I import my chosen video into iMovie? How do I shorten each video file? After a quick 5 minute tutorial he was off on his own. He did some stuff without asking too, like adding titles, which I imagine he did via trial and error.  After 40 minutes he had a completed video – including hilarious credits! With a bit of help from Lee, he exported the movie and uploaded it to his own YouTube channel. Then he got on the phone to his mate to tell him to go watch it – oh, he emailed the link to the email address of his mate’s mum too!

The next morning when I dropped him off to school we heard his name being called out by a woman. It was his mate’s mum. She was so stoked with the video and laughed about how she’d asked if she could bring the washing in but they said it was part of their props, lol.

This is the perfect example of a passion-driven project. It didn’t take weeks to do, it took a few days. The boys did their brainstorming and planning at school (EXPLORE), their filming and editing together at home (CREATE) and shared it online and with their mates (PRESENT). Projects are everywhere and they can be so awesome.

How can we make sure that the projects we do at school are just as fun, inspiring and cool as this one?


Hunger Games 2212: my rejected ISTE presentation

I wasn’t ever going to blog about this, I really wasn’t. The project many of my Twitter friends know as #HG2212 was one of my most favourite learning experiences of last year – and a favourite of my students as well. That’s why I applied to present it as ISTE in San Antonio this year. Well, as you can guess from the title of this post, my presentation wasn’t accepted. I’m not writing this post to bitch about being rejected (because I think karma played a big role in my rejection and that makes things balance out in my head) but to share the project a little for the first time. Why? My very dear Twitter mate @carlaleeb asked me about the project today because a colleague of hers is about to teach the Hunger Games. My other great Twitter mate @pollydunning is keen to give this project a go as well.

I don’t plan to write a long and detailed post about the project. What I will do is share the recording of my presentation from edmodocon12 in August last year. It was a truly emotional experience sharing this project – yes, I cry in the video – simply because the project was such a moving learning experience. It was my life and my students’ life for two weeks straight, 24/7. There are some aspects of the project that I am not at liberty to disclose because they do not belong to me – they belong to Dean Groom who helped me nut out the project and sort out the annoying details that involved numbers. The idea for the project was also pretty much stolen from @Towney77. However, when I run this again this year I will definitely be simplifying the gaming elements and using edmodo much more cleverly to tally XP. It can be done.

So here is the video – be warned, it goes for well over half an hour and I do literally cry in it. You need to click on the link here and scroll down to my name and click on the little arrow beside it. It’s a lot of scrolling, haha!

I’d also like to share some of my students’ blogs from that project. Their writing still gives me goosebumps and will serve as wonderful models for my class this year.

Leefern R Skipberi

Harlow Lilywalk

Daniel Giunter

Leigh Walk-lily

Ruchit Seeaster 

Finally, I’d like to share the storify of the #HG2212 tweets carefully curated by my friend @missjessm. I am so very grateful that she did as it has given me a lasting record of the experience. Here it is: Bianca does Hunger Games


#OZPBLCHAT 3rd December: Driving Questions and Need to Know

Last week was crazy for me … I can’t even remember why really except that I my prac student (Peter, who is great) started with me on Monday and on Saturday I presented on PBL to a group of English teachers in Wagga Wagga. In all of the busyness, I forgot to post on here the links to the storifys of last week’s #OZPBLCHAT. I feel bad about it because I know how much work Lee put into creating them and I also know that a few people have been wanting to catch up on the chat. The chat spans FOUR storify posts – crazy – one for each question.

Question One                Question Two                Question Three            Question Four

Last night we had our third #OZPBLCHAT – can you believe it has been three weeks already? – and as always, it was a rush of ideas and questions. Most of which I couldn’t answer in the time. Once again I chose four questions to focus our discussion however mostly these were a loose focus and we found ourselves discussing a whole range of things, even flicking back to significant content covered the week before.

Below arethe questions that I posed for the Oz PBLers participating in the chat with some of the ideas and resources that I shared as part of the chat. I will try to be as good as Lee and get the storify sequenced on the questions and share it here in the next day or so.

What makes a good driving question?

I don’t think that there is any one answer to this question. Why? Because like all quality strategies, a driving questions should be timely and relevant to its context. A DQ may be laboured over by a teacher for weeks, or it may come spontaneously in class from a news event, a personal experience or a random moment of abstract curiosity. For me, DQs often come to me in the shower … which is weird, I know. I’ve also had great success refining DQs via twitter discussions or through scribbling in my notebook. One clear distinction I do like to make regarding DQs is between the abstract, philosophical, ephemeral questions (e.g. What can we learn from tragedy?) and the action-oriented DQs (e.g. How can we make a short film that will impress auteur Tim Burton?). I shared some links that I always return to when I’m stuck, and here they are in a folder in my edmodo group PBL 1001.

What are the best driving questions you’ve used, want to use or seen used?

There were lots of ideas shared with this question but I think we still found ourselves grappling with the role that significant content (e.g. the syllabus and/or student interests) and the end product plays in the make-up of the driving question. As should be the case, there were divergent opinions about this. Having done quite a bit of PBL experimenting with my classes, I can confidently say that there is not one main type of question that we should try to perfect. Just something that is cool and the kids get excited by. Below is an image with a bunch of DQs that I have used over the last two years.

Slide1How can we ensure projects create a need to know? 

Hmmm … trying to summarise my thoughts on this in the ten minutes I feel I left in me tonight is going to be hard. You can read what the BIE definition of ‘need to know’ is here. I argued last night that the ‘need to know’ is really the ‘significant content’ (read ‘syllabus’) hidden just well enough for students to discover. That sounds devious, but it isn’t. My intention isn’t to trick students and it certainly isn’t to limit their inquiry to what is in the teacher’s head. What I mean is that a well designed project (with a clearly defined problem, purpose and audience) will lead students to the realisation that they need to know certain skills and content in order to successfully complete the project. So an example would be a recent project that I’ve written for the new K-10 English Syllabus. The DQ is: How can we make a powerful documentary? The DQ tells the students what the problem and purpose of the project is – to find our what makes a powerful documentary and to make one. The students will (ideally) realise that they need to know about the documentary form, watch some documentaries, work out what is powerful and what is (even come to some new definition of the word powerful) and that they need to know and master the skills required to actually compose a powerful film.

What strategies/tools can we use to support students’ establish what they ‘need to know’?

This is a question I wanted answered for me. I’ve been very happy with using a couple of key PBL strategies – the KWL table, Socratic circles and fishbowls. (These are wikipedia links, if you don’t like Wikipedia you’re silly, and if you do like it – donate!) These are learning strategies that help students clarify what they need to know (and hopefully want to know) in order to complete the project. Today on the photocopier in my staffroom I saw a worksheet with a description of a starbursting questioning/thinking strategy that looked awesome. I’ll have to find out who it belonged to – I have a suspicion it is my HT who is preparing himself for the move to HT of T&L. Anyway, this blog post gives a bit of an insight into how I get students to start thinking about the project and generating their need to know questions – yeah, questions are the best way to frame the need to know. Oh, and make these really visible – post them on the classroom wall and go back to them regularly to check what they have learnt or add to the list of what they need to know.

#OZPLBLCHAT 28th November: Significant Content & Student Voice and Choice

Tomorrow is our second ever #OZPBLCHAT. If you missed last week’s awesome chat, you can read about it here. There were so many questions that I didn’t get around to answering – I hope that the wrap-up blog post and the storify helped. If not, just add your question as a comment below.
OK, so this week (Monday, 9pm) we are looking at TWO of what BIE called the ‘8 ESSENTIALS OF PBL’ and whether you think there should be more or less to PBL, my experience has revealed that all 8 of these elements are essential. Tomorrow we’re looking at two that I think come (or should come) at the beginning of the project-planning cycle: Significant Content & Student Voice and Choice.

If you’ve never planned a PBL project before, you might want to consider checking out the freebies offered by BIE to get you started. You can find them here. I suggest starting with the ‘project calendar’ just to help you get a bit of structure to your project. At that same link is a good PDF on the 8 essentials for PBL too – a worthy read. Also at the same link, scroll down and check out the ‘teaching and learning guide’ – another good document to guide you through the early stages of PBL. I also have a bunch of these files saved in folders in my PBL 1001 edmodo group that you can request to join by using this link here. Finally, you might want to check out the sample projects and resources that have been shared for free in the BIE edmodo community that you can join by clicking this link here.

Before I go through the discussion questions for tomorrow night’s chat, I’ll just let you know that significant content and student voice and choice are things that I have grappled with enormously over the last two years. Sometimes I have felt so much angst about student voice and choice that I’ve wanted to quit PBL altogether because I felt like a fraud. Another time I realised after the project launch that I hadn’t given my students enough voice and choice, resulting in their frustration with the project. I ended up ripping up the project and getting them to create their own projects. Finally, despite my reticence to have projects too driven by me and my secret syllabus needs, I have had great success with well-designed projects that have prompted students to engage directly with significant content from the syllabus as well as content relevant to their own lives/world.

Discussion questions for #OZPBLCHAT:

1. What makes content ‘significant’? (For the teacher and the students.)

2. How do you plan a project around significant (syllabus) content?

3. a. What is ‘student voice’? (AND) b. How do we ensure our students get a voice but also engage with ‘significant content’?

4. a. What types of choices should students be given during projects? (AND) b. How do I give my students a choice?